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I use a mobile broadband with a Vodafone SIM. I do not have a Vodafone mobile account (I prefer EE).
To register an online account on MyVodafone, part of the registration is to receive a text to verify my identity. However, this is sent to the mobile broadband SIM number. Which I cannot view the text messages - because I have to login to the web portal.
Utter madness. I have spent hours speaking to customer services, and the (slowest ever) online chat. And still I have no ability to view my account online.
If you have Vodafone Connect software for tablets or data dongles you can register from the device, the code will come up on your dashboard or appear as a popup.
When you have completed registration, you can register an alternative contact number to receive the code and this does not need to be a Vodafone number.
Please see the link below, there is further information to help but if you are unable to register live chat or Customer Services are there to help.
Finally found some useful information from that link you provided (thank you) and critically this link is the one that is required to view text messages and settings: